Ahn DK, Kim Ho Cheol and Choi Ho Young. Effects of the Cervi Parvum Cornu on the aged ovariectomized rat model of post-menopausal osteoporosis. International Symposium on Cervi Parvum Cornu, Seoul, Korea. The Korean Society of Pharmacognosy. 1994.
Albov NA and Krupernikov LF. The influence of Pantocrine on menopause. In S.M. Pavlenko (editor) Pantocrine. A Publication of Articles on Studies of the Curative Properties of in Pantocrine. Sojuzchimexport, Moscow, USSR. 1969.
Albov NA, Borovskaya VA and Kofanav IF. Clinical observations on the influence of Pantocrine on cardiac patients. In S.M. Pavlenko (editor) Pantocrine. A Publication of Articles on Studies of the Curative Properties in Pantocrine. Sojuzchimexport, Moscow, USSR. 1969.
Allen M, Oberle K, Grace M, et al. A randomized clinical trial of elk velvet antler in rheumatoid arthritis. Biol Res Nurs. 2008.
Barling PM, Liu H, Matich J, Mount J, Ka Wai Lai A, Ma L, Basford Nicholson LF. Expression of PTHrP and the PTH/PTHrP receptor in growing red deer antler. Cell Biol Int. 2004.
Brechman II. Pantocrine. Medexport, Moscow, USSR. Undated.
Broeder, C.E.; Percival, R.; Quindry, J.; Panton, L.; Wills, T.; Browder, K.D.; Earnest, C.; Almada, A.; Haines, S. R.; Suttie, J.M. The effects of New Zealand deer velvet antler supplementation on body composition, strength, and maximal aerobic and anaerobic performance. In: Suttie, J.M.; Haines, S.R.; Li C. (eds.). Advances in Antler Science and Product Technology, Taieri Print, Fairfield, Dunedin, New Zealand. 2004.
Burgio, PA. The velvet antler: Its medicinal application, factors affecting growth, and biochemical analysis. 2001.
Cegielski Mark, Irene Całkosiński, Peter Dzięgiel, Thomas Gebarowski, Marzena Podhorska-Okołów, Robert Skalik, Maciej Zabel.: Search for stem cells in the growing antler stag (Cervuselaphus) Bull.Vet.Inst.Pulawy Vol.50 no.2 2006.
Chen X, Jia Y, Wang B. Inhibitory effects of the extract of pilose antler on monoamine oxidase in aged mice. Chung Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih. 1992.
Church, J.S. Velvet Antler: Its historical medical use, performance enhancing effects and pharmacology. Elk Tech International Research Centre. 1999.
Clark DE, Lord EA, Suttie JM. Expression of VEGF and pleiotrophin in deer antler. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2006.
Conaglen HM, Suttie JM, Conaglen JV. Effect of deer velvet on sexual function in men and their partners: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Arch Sex Behav. 2003.
Cooney, A. . A Review of Scientific Literature on the Health Benefits of Velvet Antler. 2001.
Dalefield RR, Oehme FW. Deer velvet antler: some unanswered questions on toxicology. Vet Hum Toxicol. 1999.
Ditchkoff SS, Spicer LJ, Masters RE, Lochmiller RL. Concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I in adult male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): associations with serum testosterone, morphometrics and age during and after the breeding season. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2001.
Doron, Ran, Zvi Nevo, and Itay Fenichel. The effect of powder made of quality elk velvet antlers on the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from adult bone marrow. European Orthopaedics and Traumatology. 2010.
Editor, North American Elk. Research links velvet antler to multi-billion dollar dietary supplement industry. North American Elk. 1998.
Faucheux C, Nesbitt SA, Horton MA, Price JS. Cells in regenerating deer antler cartilage provide a microenvironment that supports osteoclast differentiation. J Exp Biol. 2001.
Fennessy, P F 1991 Velvet antler: the product and pharmacology. Proc. Deer Course for Veterinarians (Deer Branch of the NZ Vet Assoc)
Fisher, B.D.; M. Gilpin; D. Wiles. Strength training parameters in Edmonton police recruits following supplementation with elk velvet antler (EVA). University of Alberta. 1998.
Francis SM and Suttie JM. Detection of growth factors and proto-oncogene mRNA in the growing tip of red deer (Cervus elaphus) antler using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The Journal of Experimental Zoology. 1998.
Garcia RL, Sadighi M, Francis SM, Suttie JM and Fleming JS. Expression of neurotrophin-3 in the growing velvet antler of the red deer Cervus elaphus. Journal of Molecular Endocrinology. 1997.
Gauthaman K, Ganesan AP, Prasad RN. Sexual effects of puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) extract (protodioscin): an evaluation using a rat model. J Altern Complement Med. 2003.
Gu L, Mo E, Yang Z, Zhu X, Fang Z, Sun B, Wang C, Bao J, Sung C. Expression and localization of insulin-like growth factor-I in four parts of the red deer antler. Growth Factors. 2007.
Ivankina NF, Isay SV, Busarova NG, et al. Prostaglandin-like activity, fatty acid and phospholipid composition of sika deer ( Cervus nippon ) antlers at different growth stages. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 1993.
J. Price and S. Allen. Exploring the mechanisms regulating regeneration of deer antlers Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 2004.
Kamen, B. & Kamen P. The remarkable healing power of velvet antler. Nutrition Encounter, Novato, CA. 1999.
Ke LJ, Lin DY, Huang XN, Huo YS, Rao PF, Ye XY. [Comparison of protein composition and activities of pilose antler processed by different methods]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2008.
Kim DH, Han SB, Yu KU, et al. Antitumor activity of fermented antler on sarcoma 180 in mice. Yakhak Hoeji. 1994.
Kim HS, Lim HK, Park WK. Antinarcotic effects of the velvet antler water extract on morphine in mice. J Ethnopharmacol . 1999.
Kim HS, Lim HK. Inhibitory effects of velvet antler water extract on morphine-induced conditioned place preference and DA receptor supersensitivity in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999.
Kim KH, Lee EJ, Kim K, Han SY, Jhon GJ. Modification of concanavalin A-dependent proliferation by phosphatidylcholines isolated from deer antler, Cervus elaphus. Nutrition. 2004.
Kim KL, Shin MK, Lee HI, Kim WH and Lee SI. Effect of several kinds of antler (Cervi cornu) on the erythrocytic activity in experimentally induced anaemic rabbits. Samwon Commercial Company, Korea Trading Agents Associations, Seoul. Undated.
Kim,Y E., and D. K. Lim. Biochemical studies on antler (Cervus nippon taiouanus) V:A study of glycolipids and phosholipids of velvet antler layer and pantocrin. Korean Biochem.J. 1977.
Ko KM, Yip TT, Tsao SW, Kong YC, Fennessy P, Belew MC and Porath, J. Epidermal growth factor from deer (Cervus elaphus) submaxillary gland and velvet antler. General Comparative Endocrinology. 1986.
Li C, Littlejohn RP, Suttie JM. Effects of insulin-like growth factor 1 and testosterone on the proliferation of antlerogenic cells in vitro. J Exp Zool. 1999.
Lu L, Wang K, Li L, Xuan Z, Gong X. [Effect of velvet antler polypeptide on peripheral nerve regeneration]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2008.
Lu LJ, Chen L, Meng XT, Yang F, Zhang ZX, Chen D. Biological effect of velvet antler polypeptides on neural stem cells from embryonic rat brain. Chin Med J (Engl). 2005.
McNeary, PS. Velvet Antler: Science Substantiates New Hope for Arthritis Suffers. 2001.
Min J, Lee YJ, Kim YA, Park HS, Han SY, Jhon GJ, Choi W. Lysophosphatidylcholine derived from deer antler extract suppresses hyphal transition in Candida albicans through MAP kinase pathway. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001. Moreau M, Dupuis J, Bonneau NH, Lecuyer M. Clinical evaluation of a powder of quality elk velvet antler for the treatment of osteoarthrosis in dogs. Can Vet J . 2004.
Obey, F. Velvet antler: Traditional medicine backed by modern research. Classic Critters. 1995.
Price JS, Oyajobi BO, Oreffo RO, et al. Cells cultured from the growing tip of red deer antler express alkaline phosphatase and proliferate in response to insulin-like growth factor-I. J Endocrinol. 1994.
Shim SD and Ahn DK. Effects of Cervi Cornu on the aged ovariectomized rate model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Korean Journal of Herbal Medicine. 1999.
Sim, JS & Sunwoo, HH. Canadian scientists study velvet antler for arthritis treatment. North American Elk. 1998.
Sunwoo, H.H.; L.YM. Sim; T. Nakano; R.J. Hudson; J.S. Sim. Glycosaminoglycans from growing antlers of wapiti (Cervus elaphus). Canadian Journal of Animal Science. 1997.
Suttie JM, Fennessy PF, Haines SR, Kerr D, Sadighi M and Isaacs C. The New Zealand velvet antler industry: Background and research findings. Proceedings of the Korean Symposium on Deer Velvet Antler, Korean Society of Pharmacognosy. 1994.
Wang, B.X.;AJ. Liu; X.J. Cheng; Q.G.Wang; G. R.Wei; J.C.Cui. Anti-ulcer action of the polysaccharides isolated from pilose antler. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pa I [undated].
Wang, Ben-Xiang. Advances in the research of chemistry, pharmacology and clinical application of pilose antler. 1996.Proceedings of the ’96 International Symposium on Deer Science and Deer Products. Changchun, China. 1996.
Wang, Ben-Xiang, Chen H., Xu W., Zhang W and Zhang J. Effect of polyamines isolated from pilose antler on RNA polymerase activities in mouse liver. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. 1990.
Wang, Ben-Xiang, Chen X. and Zhang W. Influence of the active compounds isolated from pilose antler on synthesis of protein and RNA in mouse liver. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. 1990.
Wang, BX, Zhao XH, Qi SB, Kaneko S, Hattori M, Mamba T and Nomura Y. Effects of repeated administration of deer velvet antler extract on biochemical changes related to ageing in senescence-accelerated mice. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 1988.
Wang, BX, Zhao XH, Qi SB, Yang XW, Kaneko S, Hattori M, Mamba T and Nomura Y. Stimulating effect of deer velvet antler extract on protein synthesis in senescence-accelerated mice in vivo. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 1988.
Whiting, P. Growth hormone in velvet antler. 2001.
Yudin, A. M. and Y. L. Dubryakov. A guide for the preparation and storage of uncalcified male antlers as a medicinal raw material. In Reindeer antlers, Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Far East Science Center. Vladivostock. 1974.
Zhang ZQ, Wang Y, Zhang H, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of pilose antler peptide. Zhongguo Yao Li XueBao. 1994.
Zhang ZQ, Zhang Y, Wang BX, et al. Purification and partial characterization of anti-inflammatory peptide from pilose antler ofCervus nippon Temminck. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1992.
Zhou QL, Guo YJ, Wang LJ, et al. Velvet antler polypeptides promoted proliferation of chondrocytes and osteoblast precursors and fracture healing. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1999.